What is CBD?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in 1940. It is one of some 113 identified cannabinoids in cannabis plants, accounting for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. As of 2018, preliminary clinical research on cannabidiol included studies of anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, and pain.
Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution. CBD does not have the same psychoactivity as THC, and may affect the actions of THC. Although in vitro studies indicate CBD may interact with different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors, as of 2018 the mechanism of action for its biological effects has not been determined.
In the United States, the cannabidiol drug Epidiolex has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of two epilepsy disorders. The side effects of long-term use of the drug include somnolence, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fatigue, malaise, weakness, sleeping problems, and others.
The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration has assigned Epidiolex a Schedule V classification, while non-Epidiolex CBD remains a Schedule I drug prohibited for any use. Cannabidiol is not scheduled under any United Nations drug control treaties, and in 2018 the World Health Organization recommended that it remain unscheduled.
CBD does not have the psychoactive effects of THC. Moreover, CBD is known to reduce or block the psychoactive effects of THC as part of an entourage effect of cannabis.
How CBD Products Are Made
CBD can be extracted from marijuana or industrial hemp plants. Herbily Ever After® CBD products are extracted from the stalks and stems of industrial hemp plants, which are cannabis plants with .3% THC or less. Once cultivated, the industrial hemp plants are lifted from the ground and brought to an extraction facility.
To extract CBD-rich cannabis oil, one must start with CBD-rich plant material. There are many ways to extract oil from the cannabis plant, each has its pros and cons. Some methods are safer and more effective than others. Cannabis oil made with neurotoxic solvents like butane and hexane may leave unsafe residues that compromise immune function and impede healing.
- CO2 extraction (Herbily Ever After® Method) The supercritical (or subcritical) CO2 method uses carbon dioxide under high pressure and extremely low temperatures to isolate, preserve, and maintain the purity of the medicinal oil. This process requires expensive equipment and a steep operational learning curve. But, when done well the end product is safe, potent, and free of chlorophyll. CO2 extraction, a popular extraction method typically used when extracting smaller quantities of hemp, involves filtering plants and supercooled liquid C02 through a series of chambers that control temperature and pressure. When different temperatures and units of pressure are applied to cannabis plants, this sophisticated system is able to isolate cannabinoids at a 90% efficiency. At the end of the process, all that is left is a pure liquid/crystal solution of CBD molecules.
- Ethanol. High-grade grain alcohol can be used to create high-quality cannabis oil appropriate for vape pen cartridges and other products. But this extraction method destroys the plant waxes, which may have benefits that are favored by some product-makers.
- Olive oil. Extra virgin or otherwise, olive oil can also be used to extract cannabis oil. Dr. Arno Hazekamp, director of phytochemical research at Bedrocan BV, which supplies medical cannabis for the Dutch Health Ministry, reports this method is both safe and inexpensive, “You won’t blow yourself up making cannabis-infused olive oil.” However, cannabis-infused olive oil–whether CBD-rich or THC-dominant–is perishable and should be stored in a cool, dark place.
Cannabinoids like CBD have a strong interaction with chromatography media, thus traveling slower than unwanted plant material like chlorophyll which has a weak interaction. Once divided, cannabidiol and other terpenes can be isolated and undesirable plant material can be disposed of.
Herbily Ever After® CBD oil products also undergo a process called decarboxylation. This involves heating the cannabinoids into a form that allows the cannabinoids to immediately interact with the endocannabinoid system making the compound more usable throughout the body. When the extracted oil is decarboxylated, the essential CBD oil solution converts from CBDA to CBD, thus removing the acid form so it’s readily bioavailable. Once decarboxylated, the oil can be consumed directly, however it may not have a favorable taste. Instead, this oil can be mixed with a carrying oil such as hemp seed or coconut oil, turned into capsules, or hardened into an isolate form for consumer use.
What is Hemp Oil?
Hemp oil is filled with ingredients to keep your body balanced. Hemp oil is:
- Well-Researched Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the late eighties, there have been thousands of studies published in medical journals detailing the effects of cannabinoids on the body.
- NOT “hempseed oil” Full-spectrum hemp oil is not the hempseed oil you typically find in the grocery store. Hemp oil is derived from hemp strains, while hempseed oil is derived only from hemp seeds and contains no cannabinoids.
- Naturally Made, Our bodies naturally create cannabinoids called Anandamide and 2-AG. Like phytocannbinoids, the body’s endocannabinoids help with maintaining homeostasis; your body’s natural state of stability.
- Simply Balanced The cannabinoids found in hemp oil help your body return to its natural rhythm.
Hemp and Cannabinoids
Hemp is a source of cannabidiol (CBD) in preponderant amounts (usually up to about 4% of the dry weight of the hemp biomass), but hemp-seed oil can contain negligible or smaller amounts of CBD.
We at Herbily Ever After® promise to never use hemp-seed oil in any of your Herbily Ever After® wellness supplement products. Hemp-seed oil may contain traces of THC, as well, usually less than 0.3%, and it does not have any psychoactive properties. Less than a 0.3% concentration is the legal limit for hemp oil contents of THC. Many hybrids of cannabis have been produced by special selection and growing techniques where CBD contents of hemp can be increased to about 14% of CBD per dry weight of the hemp in question.
The Endocannabinoid System and How it Works
Research into the effects of cannabis led to the discovery of a biochemical communication system inside of the human body. The endocannabinoid system, as it was so named, is a collection of cell receptors and corresponding molecules that help to regulate sleep, appetite, mood, motor control, immune function, pleasure, pain, physiology and other everyday experiences. When the endocannabinoid system is in balance, one experiences homeostasis. Endocannabinoids are the molecules that act as chemical messengers that bind to cannabinoid cell receptors and tell the body to do certain things. The human body naturally produces endocannabinoids with the help of consuming foods like fatty acids found in nuts and fish. The 60+ cannabinoid molecules found in cannabis also can bind to cannabinoid receptors. Although different cannabinoids (like CBD and THC) cause different effects, they work through the same system of molecular messages sent throughout the body.
These cannabinoids aid in the human body’s endocannabinoid system, which is responsible for many vital bodily functions. Cannabinoids may alter many bodily functions. Furthermore, different species or hybrid types of cannabis can present a wide variety of different cannabinoids, some of which are metabolic products of cannabinoids themselves. The cannabinoids profile and content of cannabis plants are often very different. While scientific knowledge of the interactions among different cannabinoids is beginning to become clarified, the overall effects of different cannabis profiles on body functions are sometimes difficult to predict.
Cannabinoids function in an entourage effect that is mainly a function of actions of several terpenes and many cannabinoids that are contained within cannabis. It is this versatile entourage effect that accounts for the many effects of cannabinoids on physiological processes.
Full Spectrum and the Entourage Effect
Some CBD oil products on the market are limited to CBD explicitly while others advertise their product as “full spectrum” meaning it contains other cannabinoids such as CBN, CBC, and THCA. A wider range cannabinoid spectrum can aid in what is known as the entourage effect, which is the scientific belief that cannabinoids have greater potential when working together rather than acting as a single molecule. The interaction of more than one cannabinoid stimulates the endocannabinoid system and the molecular interaction.
When choosing your medicine, be aware that there will be a price and taste difference between “ Herbily Ever After™ CBD Oil’ and “ Herbily Ever After® CBD Full Spectrum Oil”. Not everyone needs or desires the full spectrum of cannabinoid molecules in their wellness regiment; the choice is yours.
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